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REPORT TEXT

Jenis teks Report berfungsi memberikan deskripsi tentang ciri-ciri umum dari suatu jenis benda, hidup ataupun mati. Teks ini berbeda dengan teks Deskripsi, yang fungsinya memberikan uraian tentang suatu benda tertentu dan tidak dimaksudkan untuk menjeneralisasi.

FUNGSI SOSIAL

Tujuan penulis untuk menulis report text dapat dilihat dari pandangan beberapa ahli diantaranya:

  • to inform (Hardy dan Klarwein, 1990)
  • to provide information about natural and non-natural phenomena (Hammond, dkk., 1992)
  • to document, organize and store factual information on a topic … classify and describe the phenomena of our world … about a whole class of things … [not about] one specific thing … about living things like plants and animals, and non-living things like phones, bikes, or oceans. (Derewianka, 1990)
  • to describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment (Gerot dan Wignell, 1994)
  • to describe the way things are, with reference to a whole range of phenomena, natural, synthetic and social in our environment (Callaghan dan Rothery, 1988)

Kalau Anda perhatikan dengan cermat, berikut ini adalah unsur-unsur kegunaan yang dapat disarikan dari berbagai pernyataan di atas.

· to provide factual information

· natural and non-natural phenomena

· whole class of things

· to classify

· to describe

Bacalah dengan seksama kedua contoh Report berikut ini. Untuk itu, pelajari dahulu pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut ini, tentang masing-masing teks tersebut.

1. Is it about something factual or fictional? What is it?

2. Does it describe a natural or non-natural phenomena?

3. Is it about a specific kangaroo or kangaroos in general?

4. To which class does the kangaroo belong?

5. How is it described here?

What is a kangaroo?

A kangaroo is an animal found only in Australia, although it has a smaller relative, called a wallaby, which lives on the Australian island of Tasmania and also in New Guinea.

Kangaroos eat grass and plants. They have short front legs, but very long, and very strong back legs and a tail. These they use for sitting up on and for jumping. Kangaroos have been known to make forward jumps of over eight metres, and leap across fences more than three metres high. They can also run at speeds of over 45 kilometres per hour.

The largest kangaroos are the Great Grey Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo. Adults grow to a length of 1.60 metres and weigh over 90 kilos.

Kangaroos are marsupials. This means that the female kangaroo has an external pouch on the front of her body. A baby kangaroo is very tiny when it is born, and it crawls at once into this pouch where it spends its first five months of life.

Text Source: Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083

A Report or a Description?

Banyak orang yang mempertanyakan apa perbedaan antara Report dan Description. Meskipun banyak orang yang menganggap kedua jenis teks tersebut pada dasarnya tidak berbeda, penulis-penulis berikut ini beranggapan bahwa kedua jenis teks tersebut berbeda. Bacalah dengan seksama kedua pernyataan tersebut, dan kemudian Anda mengetahui letak perbedaanya.

Information Reports classify and describe the phenomena of our world. We use them when we talk about a whole class of things, e.g. “Bikes”. By contrast, a Description only talks about one specific thing, e.g. “My Bike”. (Derewianka, 1990: 51)

A Description “describes a particular person, place or thing” (Gerot dan Wignell, 1994: 208)


Jenis teks Report memiliki dua unsur utama. Berikut ini dikutip beberapa batasan tentang struktur generik dari beberapa penulis, agar Anda memperoleh gambaran yang lebih komprehensif tentang ini. Bacalah dengan seksama!

  • General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
  • Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of
    • parts (and their functions)
    • qualities
    • habits or behaviours, if living; uses, if non-natural

(Gerott dan Wignell, 1994)

Short Report

· Classification (can also begin with defintion)

· Description of subtopics, in sequence given in the question

Long Report

· Classification or Definition

· Description of features in order of importance

(Hardy dan Klarwein, 1990)

  • Opening general statement/general classification
  • Sometimes the opening statement may also indicate a particular aspect of the topic that is being treated (e.g., There are many different types of bike in Australia)
  • Facts about various aspects of the subject (colour, shape, habits, behaviour, etc.) à giving examples, comparing and contrasting, describing components and their function

(Derewianka, 1990)

Contoh teks dan analisa struktur generiknya.

Text

Struktur Generik

Whales

Whales are sea-living mammals.

They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30cm in thickness and serves to converse heat and body fluids.

Classification / definition

Description of habit and habitat

Description of physical features

Text Source: Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083

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